While the continental trade agreement between the U.S., Mexico, and Canada stalls in the ratification process, the Africa Continental Free Trade Agreement (AfCFTA) quietly came into force on May 30. A unified market for the participating countries is set to be launched on July 7.

So far, 52 countries have signed the agreement and 24 of those legislations have ratified the agreement. The minimum threshold for passage is 22 legislative ratifications. The continent’s largest economy and most populous country, Nigeria, is yet to sign the AfCFTA. Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari is reportedly reviewing an impact assessment and consulting with domestic economic stakeholders to determine whether or not Nigeria will sign the agreement.

 According to the African Union, the AfCFTA aims to “Expand intra-African trade through better harmonization and coordination of trade liberalization.” The agreement will create a single market for goods and services by removing existing trade barriers across Africa. The AfCFTA hopes to boost regional trade by reducing tariffs and allow companies to enter into new markets. Some analysts, however, anticipate difficulties in implementation.

 Africa has a multitude of regional and national actors with disparate and conflicting interests on trade. Since many legal details are still being finalized, and experts warn that the lengthy implementation process and lack of cross-continental precedent could mean that enforcing the agreement will be a challenge.